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Turkey, officially known as the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental Eurasian country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Turkey is a vast peninsula, covering an area of 780,000 sq km and linking Asia to Europe through the Sea of Marmara and the Straits of Istanbul and Çanakkale.
Approximately 70 to 80 percent of the country's citizens are Turkish. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations. Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given its geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history. Turkey is also one of the world's top ten destination countries.
Ankara is the capital of Turkey with a population of 5,5 million people approximately. Ankara is Turkey's second-largest city after Istanbul with a population of 15 million people. Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic on 29 October 1923 succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul. Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city, located at the center of Turkey's road and railway networks.
The total population of Turkey is 82 million people as per 2018 estimate.
As of 2017, there are 190 universities in Turkey. Turkey is a member of the European Higher Education Area and actively participates in the Bologna Process. According to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the top universities in Turkey are Bogaziçi University, Middle East Technical University, Bilkent University, Koç University, Istanbul Technical University, Sabancı University.
Turkish Lira (₺) is the official currency in Turkey.
Surrounded by seas on three sides, it is placed in the temperate climate zone. The climate varies considerably from region to region, however: a temperate climate in the Black Sea region, a Mediterranean climate on the southern coast and the Aegean, a continental and arid climate on the central plateau, and a harsh mountain climate in eastern Turkey. Because of these variations in climate, the fauna and flora are some of the richest in the world.
The official language of Turkey is Turkish.
The Turkish flag is a red flag featuring a white star and crescent.
Turkey has an extremely rich cultural heritage. Perhaps no other land has witnessed so many diverse civilizations over the last 11,500 years. As a bridge between Europe and Asia, Turkey has so much to offer visitors: breathtaking natural beauty, unique historical and archaeological sites, steadily improving hotel and touristic infrastructure and a tradition of hospitality. The Turkish landscape can be described as a "symphony of sounds, smells and people in the most unlikely combinations of appearance and action". Turkey is a huge open-air museum, a repository of all the civilizations nurtured by the soils of Anatolia. Turkey is on the UNESCO World Heritage List with many precious historical places and cities. Göbeklitepe with 12,000-year history, the oldest known temple yet discovered anywhere, is one of the stunning historical markers in Turkey.
Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion. The Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience.
Turkey is also subdivided into 7 regions and for geographic, demographic and economic purposes and into 81 provinces for administrative purposes.
Turkey’s country code is +90
Holders of diplomatic and official passports ("official passports" covers diplomatic, service, special and official passports) are exempted from visas.
The Electronic Visa (e-Visa) Application System was launched on 17 April 2013 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey. This system allows visitors traveling to Turkey to easily obtain their e-Visas online (www.evisa.gov.tr), in approximately three minutes.